By William N. Venables, David M. Smith, R Development Core Team
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Additional resources for An Introduction to R: Notes on R: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics
Account(200) ross$withdraw(30) ross$balance() robert$balance() 2 In some sense this mimics the behavior in S-Plus since in S-Plus this operator always creates or assigns to a global variable. 8 Customizing the environment Users can customize their environment in several different ways. There is a site initialization file and every directory can have its own special initialization file. Last can be used. The location of the site initialization file is taken from the value of the R_PROFILE environment variable.
Forming the columns. If some of the arguments to cbind() are vectors they may be shorter than the column size of any matrices present, in which case they are cyclically extended to match the matrix column size (or the length of the longest vector if no matrices are given). The function rbind() does the corresponding operation for rows. In this case any vector argument, possibly cyclically extended, are of course taken as row vectors. Suppose X1 and X2 have the same number of rows. To combine these by columns into a matrix X, together with an initial column of 1s we can use > X <- cbind(1, X1, X2) The result of rbind() or cbind() always has matrix status.
Two slightly different summaries are given by summary and fivenum and a display of the numbers by stem (a “stem and leaf” plot). > attach(faithful) > summary(eruptions) Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. 1000 > stem(eruptions) Max. 100 The decimal point is 1 digit(s) to the left of the | 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 070355555588 000022233333335577777777888822335777888 00002223378800035778 0002335578023578 00228 23 080 7 2337 250077 0000823577 2333335582225577 0000003357788888002233555577778 03335555778800233333555577778 02222335557780000000023333357778888 0000233357700000023578 00000022335800333 0370 A stem-and-leaf plot is like a histogram, and R has a function hist to plot histograms.
An Introduction to R: Notes on R: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics by William N. Venables, David M. Smith, R Development Core Team