By United Nations
Pollution has develop into a key challenge of everyday life in huge towns. This booklet units out the result of a undertaking performed in the course of 2000-2002 to check the administration of pollution in 3 Latin American towns of Mexico urban, Sao Paulo and Santiago. The undertaking interested by the attention and participation of the population of the affected towns in regards to the challenge and the significance of citizen involvement for the improvement of powerful coverage recommendations and mechanisms for pollution regulate.
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In sociology, co-evolution is seen as a continuous and interactive synthesis of nature and society; in economics, it is viewed as an alternative to neoclassical theory. Ecological economics highlights the importance of co-evolution as a concept explaining the link between economics and the ecosystem. 1 describe co-evolution in greater detail. The theory maintains that rectifying unsustainable development depends not only on applying new technologies to the environment but also on a change in "perception", since the choice and use of technologies is embedded in the social structure, which is an outcome of modern technology (Norgaard, 1994).
Social choices and decisions Consumers’ sovereign capacities; decisions facilitated by cost-benefit analysis. Rejection of cost-benefit analysis as the only option of social choice; social institutions allow greater participation in environmental decisions. Productive processes and technology Specialization, cost displacement; technological “optimism” towards the prospect of attenuating resource scarcity and ecological constraints. Diversification and decentralization as means to attenuate resource scarcity.
Diversification and decentralization as means to attenuate resource scarcity. Academic position Disciplinary. Interdisciplinary. Main tools and methods Valuation; cost-benefit analysis; policy analysis; tools-focused. rather than tools. Methods and tools Source: Graham Woodgate, Environmental Sociology, London, Wye College, University of London, 2000. 34 2. ECLAC New concepts that explain the relationship between society and the environment As a result of the growing attention paid to environmental problems in the social sciences, new concepts have arisen to explain the link between society and the environment.
Air Pollution and Citizen Awareness by United Nations