By Miles McPhee
At a time whilst the polar areas are present process fast and exceptional swap, knowing exchanges of momentum, warmth and salt on the ice-ocean interface is important for realistically predicting the long run country of sea ice. via supplying a dimension platform mostly unaffected by means of floor waves, drifting sea ice offers a special laboratory for learning features of geophysical boundary layer flows which are super tricky to degree somewhere else. This e-book attracts on either wide observations and theoretical ideas to enhance a concise description of the effect of pressure, rotation, and buoyancy at the turbulence scales that keep watch over exchanges among the ambience and underlying ocean while sea ice is current. numerous fascinating and specific observational info units are used to demonstrate diverse facets of ice-ocean interplay starting from the impression of salt on melting within the Greenland Sea marginal ice sector, to how nonlinearities within the equation of kingdom for seawater impact blending within the Weddell Sea.
The book’s content material, built from a chain of lectures, could be acceptable extra fabric for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate scholars learning the geophysics of sea ice and planetary boundary layers.
Miles McPhee plays geophysical examine, involved in polar areas, either from McPhee learn corporation and as associate vital scientist on the collage of Washington utilized Physics Laboratory. He has participated in additional that twenty box courses within the polar oceans of either hemispheres. Dr. McPhee additionally lectures on air-ice-sea interplay on the collage heart on Svalbard.
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Extra info for Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes
5 SHEBA station where isopycnals were observed to rise about 13 m above their ambient level in the undisturbed ocean, apparently in response to concentrated surface stress curl. Here we examine that event is more detail, as a possible example of double diffusion in a fully turbulent ﬂow. 13 shows the temperature and salinity proﬁles used to construct the σ0 proﬁle in Fig. 7. 5 is indicated by the dashed line in Fig. 13a, and similarly for the matching isohaline in Fig. 13b. 4 m and both are less than the isopycnal displacement shown in Fig.
With very few exceptions, the IOBL ﬂows considered here are essentially shear ﬂows that vary with the strength of the wind or tide; are anisotropic at the scales of the energy-containing eddies; and, particularly under typically rough sea ice, are hardly homogeneous. Despite these shortcomings, we often ﬁnd that a probabilistic description of the turbulent ﬂows we measure in the IOBL provides a repeatable and useful tool for understanding turbulent transfers in boundary layers where rotation is important.
If the numerical value of stress curl from Fig. 8b, evaluated in the vicinity of the ship, is multiplied by 10, the resulting pycnocline displacement is about the same as observed (McPhee et al. 2005), and we thus inferred that the March 19 upwelling event was a result of Ekman pumping. It is remarkable that the zones of intense stress curl, manifested locally at the ship by a dramatic shear across a narrow lead, extend at least 200 km in along more or less parallel arcs. The strength of the ice appears to provide a mechanism by which gradients in the forcing wind ﬁeld are concentrated into narrow shear zones, which by Ekman pumping induce substantial isopyncnal displacement and much enhanced mixing of heat and salt in the upper ocean.
Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes by Miles McPhee