By Sandra L. Singer
In the interval among the Civil warfare and international warfare I, German universities supplied North American ladies with possibilities in graduate education that weren't available to them at domestic. This education allowed ladies to compete to a better measure with males in more and more professionalized fields. In go back for such possibilities, those girls performed a key position in beginning up German universities to all ladies. Many dedicated the remainder of their lives to making greater examine and graduate possibilities for different ladies, endlessly altering the process better schooling in North America.
This examine offers bills of the terrific boundaries encountered by way of those first ladies scholars in Europe. It records their perseverance and hard-won triumphs and comprises besides the tales of the innovative males who mentored them and fought for his or her rights to raised schooling. by no means sooner than has documentation of such a lot of North American scholars at German-speaking universities been integrated in a single quantity. This number of tales from girls throughout disciplines makes it attainable to evaluate the actually outstanding nature in their mixed contributions to raised schooling and study in North the US and Europe.
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Additional info for Adventures Abroad. North American Women at German-Speaking Universities, 1868-1915
Most students enrolled at the universities returned home or tranferred to a neutral country or England. Professors cancelled their sabbatical plans for study in Europe. Tours for North American students in Europe were cancelled. One American woman, Carolyn Wilson, from the class of 1910 at Wellesley, was arrested by the German government in February 1915, on charges of espionage. Wilson had studied at the University of Berlin from 1910 through 1911. She then worked for two years in Paris as a correspondent for the Chicago Tribune.
126 Yet Russian Jews were even more desperate to find a stable place to study after 1905 and continued to flood the German universities and technical colleges. 127 For the most part, North American women were spared the blatant hostility directed at Russian students. Back in North America they were able to acquire the prior education required of them at German-speaking universities. At German-speaking universities they were confronted with the same prejudices and barriers encountered by most of the first women students.
137 In 1888, when Mary Whiton Calkins decided to earn a graduate degree so that she could teach psychology and philosophy at Wellesley, she thought of studying abroad but was discouraged from doing so by her friends. Her colleague, Mary S. "138 Such accounts, however, must be balanced with those of other women who gained genuine knowledge and significant practical experience while abroad. For example, precisely in psychology, the field mentioned in the previous quote, significant contributions were made by women who worked with the great German experimental psychologists, such as Georg Elias Miiller and Oswald Kulpe.
Adventures Abroad. North American Women at German-Speaking Universities, 1868-1915 by Sandra L. Singer