By Jian Kang
Acoustics is a massive drawback in lots of lengthy areas, similar to highway or railway tunnels, underground/railway stations, corridors, concourses and concrete streets. the explicit difficulties of such irregularly formed areas, starting from noise pollutants in streets and tunnels to bad speech intelligibility of public tackle structures in railway stations usually are not handled through vintage room acoustic theory.
This cutting-edge exposition of acoustics of lengthy areas offers the basics of acoustic concept and calculation formulae for lengthy areas in addition to giving guidance for sensible layout
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Extra info for Acoustics of long spaces : theory and design guidance
It is based on the modulation transfer function (MTF) between source and receiver. 38]. 41]. For an input signal with a varying intensity Ii t Ii 1 cos 2Ft, the output signal takes the form Io t Io 1 m cos 2F t ÿ , where m is the modulation index, is the time lag due to transmission, and F is the modulation frequency. The range of F is determined by the spectrum of the temporal envelope of speech. The function m F is de®ned as the MTF. 20 ACOUSTICS OF LONG SPACES An attractive feature of the MTF is that the eects of reverberation, ambient noise and the contribution of direct ®eld, which are usually treated individually, are combined in a natural way in the single function m F.
The re¯ected sound is modelled with a sound path directly from the image source to a receiver. Multiple re¯ections are achieved by considering further images of the image source. At each re¯ection the strength of the image source is reduced due to the surface absorption. With the image source method the situation of a source in an enclosure is replaced by a set of mirror sources in a free ®eld visible from the receiver considered. The acoustic indices at the receiver are determined by summing the contribution from all the image sources.
2. Reverberation As mentioned in Chapter 1, the classic Sabine and Eyring formulae are based on the assumption that the sound ®eld is diuse. Under this assumption the reverberation time is a single value in an enclosure and the decay curves are linear. In the following, the unsuitability of classic reverberation theory for long enclosures is analysed from the viewpoints of both geometrical acoustics and wave theory. 1. 1(b)), the dierence in sound path length between various sound rays is greater with a shorter source-receiver distance.
Acoustics of long spaces : theory and design guidance by Jian Kang