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2 Optical Devices closer the light beam is to the tube wall. 6 b) and c) show the distortion caused when air is outside and water or paraffin is inside the tube, respectively. Obviously, the distortion gets higher, the bigger the difference between the refractive index of the two fluids is. 6 mm tube. 7 shows that the absolute as well as the relative distortion increases with an increasing difference in refractive index between the two fluids. This means that the distortion caused by the glass tube is minimized when the two fluids outside and inside the tube have the same refractive index.

7) and These values can be used because of the assumption that both phases are flowing with the same velocity. An example of a homogeneous calculation method is given by Bankoff (1960). g. Lockhart and Martinelli (1949) or Friedel (1978)). g. Hart et al. (1989), Chawla (1968), Bandel and Schlunde (1973) or Hermstapelberg and Mewes (1994)). Below, some of these methods to calculate pressure drops are introduced. 1 Liquid-Gas Flows The best known method to calculate pressure drops in two-phase gasliquid flows is the one proposed by Lockhart and Martinelli (1949).

2004). 11. In the case of a spherical air bubble surrounded by paraffin, the light is scattered by the bubble. This scattering not only distorts the image of the flow but also results in sections of the flow being visible twice on the image. Taking into account the total reflection of light on the bubble surface, some sections of the flow are visible even three times on the image. This multiple visibility considerably influences the evaluation of pictures of the flow. As mentioned above, a portion of the light is totally reflected on the interface between the bubble and the surrounding fluid.

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A View Of The Coinage Of Ireland From The Invasion Of The Danes Of Thr Reigigin Of The Agorg Iv by Lindsy


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